The MAX17043 is a low-cost, host-side fuel-gauge system for lithium-ion (Li+) batteries, manufactured by Maxim Integrated.

It monitors a single lithium cell and - using a sophisticated Li+ battery-modeling scheme, called ModelGauge™ - can estimate the battery's relative state-of-charge (SOC).

It offers an i2c interface to communicate with a microcontroller.

An Arduino Library is available.

Using that library you can get the battery's voltage and SoC; the IC has also an alert function that triggers an alert when the battery's SoC goes below a threshold value.

DSSCircuits sells a breakout board for this IC, as its package is very hard to be soldered by hand.

It's an i2c device, so connection to Arduino is straightforward:

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